- Differentiating B. frereana-produced resins from B. carterii and B. sacra-produced resins – (describes the pharmacological specific details mainly on anti-inflammatory, anti-carcinogenic, anti-bacterial and apoptosis-regulating activities of individual triterpenoid together with the relevant mechanism)
- Triterpenoid resinous metabolites from the genus Boswellia: pharmacological activities and potential species-identifying properties Yuxin Zhang1 Zhangchi Ning1 Cheng Lu2*, Siyu Zhao1 Jianfen Wang1 , Baoqin Liu3 Xuegong Xu3 and Yuanyan Liu1*
- Boswellia frereana (frankincense) suppresses cytokine-induced matrix metalloproteinase expression and production of proinflammatory molecules in articular cartilage. Blain EJ1, Ali AY, Duance VC (The aim of this study was to assess the anti-inflammatory efficacy of Boswellia frereana extracts in vitro…)
- de Rapper S, Van Vuuren SF, Kamatou GP, Viljoen AM, Dagne E. “The additive and synergistic antimicrobial effects of select frankincense and myrrh oils–a combination from the pharaonic pharmacopoeia.” Lett Appl Microbiol. 2012 Apr;54(4):352-8.
- Frank MB, Yang Q, Osban J, Azzarello JT, Saban MR, Saban R, Ashley RA, Welter JC, Fung KM, Lin HK. “Frankincense oil derived from Boswellia carteri induces tumor cell specific cytotoxicity.” BMC Complement Altern Med. 2009 Mar 18;9:6.
- Mikhaeil BR, Maatooq GT, Badria FA, Amer MM. “Chemistry and immunomodulatory activity of frankincense oil.” Z Naturforsch C. 2003 Mar-Apr;58(3-4):230-8.
- Ni X, Suhail MM, Yang Q, Cao A, Fung KM, Postier RG, Woolley C, Young G, Zhang J, Lin HK. “Frankincense essential oil prepared from hydrodistillation of Boswellia sacra gum resins induces human pancreatic cancer cell death in cultures and in a xenograft murine model.” BMC Complement Altern Med. 2012 Dec 13;12:253.
- Suhail MM, Wu W, Cao A, Mondalek FG, Fung KM, Shih PT, Fang YT, Woolley C, Young G, Lin HK. “Boswellia sacra essential oil induces tumor cell-specific apoptosis and suppresses tumor aggressiveness in cultured human breast cancer cells.” BMC Complement Altern Med. 2011 Dec 15;11:129.
- Ammon, H. P. Boswellic acids in chronic inflammatory diseases. Planta Med 2006;72(12):1100-1116. 17024588
- Kiela, P. R., Midura, A. J., Kuscuoglu, N., Jolad, S. D., Solyom, A. M., Besselsen, D. G., Timmermann, B. N., and Ghishan, F. K. Effects of Boswellia serrata in mouse models of chemically induced colitis. Am J Physiol Gastrointest.Liver Physiol 2005;288(4):G798-G808. 15539433
- Gupta, I., Parihar, A., Malhotra, P., Singh, G. B., Ludtke, R., Safayhi, H., and Ammon, H. P. Effects of Boswellia serrata gum resin in patients with ulcerative colitis. Eur J Med Res 1997;2(1):37-43. 9049593
- Hostanska, K., Daum, G., and Saller, R. Cytostatic and apoptosis-inducing activity of boswellic acids toward malignant cell lines in vitro. Anticancer Res 2002;22(5):2853-2862. 12530009
- Liu, X. and Qi, Z. H. [Experimental study on Jurkat cell apoptosis induced by Boswellia carterii Birdw extractive]. Hunan Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao 6-28-2000;25(3):241-244. 12212153
- Zhao, W., Entschladen, F., Liu, H., Niggemann, B., Fang, Q., Zaenker, K. S., and Han, R. Boswellic acid acetate induces differentiation and apoptosis in highly metastatic melanoma and fibrosarcoma cells. Cancer Detect Prev 2003;27(1):67-75. 12600419
- enon, M. K. and Kar, A. Analgesic and psychopharmacological effects of the gum resin of Boswellia serrata. Planta Med 1971;19(4):333-341. 5573545
- Mothana, R. A. and Lindequist, U. Antimicrobial activity of some medicinal plants of the island Soqotra. J Ethnopharmacol 1-4-2005;96(1-2):177-181. 15588668
- Gayathri, B., Manjula, N., Vinaykumar, K. S., Lakshmi, B. S., and Balakrishnan, A. Pure compound from Boswellia serrata extract exhibits anti-inflammatory property in human PBMCs and mouse macrophages through inhibition of TNFalpha, IL-1beta, NO and MAP kinases. Int Immunopharmacol 2007;7(4):473-482. 17321470
- Roy, S., Khanna, S., Krishnaraju, A. V., Subbaraju, G. V., Yasmin, T., Bagchi, D., and Sen, C. K. Regulation of vascular responses to inflammation: inducible matrix metalloproteinase-3 expression in human microvascular endothelial cells is sensitive to antiinflammatory Boswellia. Antioxid Redox Signal 2006;8(3-4):653-660. 16677108
- Wildfeuer, A., Neu, I. S., Safayhi, H., Metzger, G., Wehrmann, M., Vogel, U., and Ammon, H. P. Effects of boswellic acids extracted from a herbal medicine on the biosynthesis of leukotrienes and the course of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Arzneimittelforschung 1998;48(6):668-674. 9689425
- Takada, Y., Ichikawa, H., Badmaev, V., and Aggarwal, B. B. Acetyl-11-keto-beta-boswellic acid potentiates apoptosis, inhibits invasion, and abolishes osteoclastogenesis by suppressing NF-kappa B and NF-kappa B-regulated gene expression. J Immunol 3-1-2006;176(5):3127-3140. 16493072
- Akihisa, T., Tabata, K., Banno, N., Tokuda, H., Nishimura, R., Nakamura, Y., Kimura, Y., Yasukawa, K., and Suzuki, T. Cancer chemopreventive effects and cytotoxic activities of the triterpene acids from the resin of Boswellia carteri. Biol Pharm Bull 2006;29(9):1976-1979. 16946522
- Mikhaeil, B. R., Maatooq, G. T., Badria, F. A., and Amer, M. M. Chemistry and immunomodulatory activity of frankincense oil. Z Naturforsch [C] 2003;58(3-4):230-238. 12710734
- Park, Y. S., Lee, J. H., Harwalkar, J. A., Bondar, J., Safayhi, H., and Golubic, M. Acetyl-11-keto-beta-boswellic acid (AKBA) is cytotoxic for meningioma cells and inhibits phosphorylation of the extracellular-signal regulated kinase 1 and 2. Adv Exp Med Biol 2002;507:387-393. 12664615
- Sharma, M. L., Bani, S., and Singh, G. B. Anti-arthritic activity of boswellic acids in bovine serum albumin (BSA)- induced arthritis. Int J Immunopharmacol 1989;11(6):647-652. 2807636
- Singh GB, Singh S, and Bani S. Anti-inflammatory actions of boswellic acids. Phytomed 1996;3(1):81-85.
- Roy, S., Khanna, S., Shah, H., Rink, C., Phillips, C., Preuss, H., Subbaraju, G. V., Trimurtulu, G., Krishnaraju, A. V., Bagchi, M., Bagchi, D., and Sen, C. K. Human genome screen to identify the genetic basis of the anti-inflammatory effects of Boswellia in microvascular endothelial cells. DNA Cell Biol 2005;24(4):244-255. 15812241
- Xia, L., Chen, D., Han, R., Fang, Q., Waxman, S., and Jing, Y. Boswellic acid acetate induces apoptosis through caspase-mediated pathways in myeloid leukemia cells. Mol Cancer Ther 2005;4(3):381-388. 15767547
- Safayhi H, Sailer ER, and Amnon HP. 5-lipoxygenase inhibition by acetyl-11-keto-beta-boswellic acid (AKBA) by a novel mechanism. Phytomed 1996;3(1):71-72.
- Badria, F. A., Mikhaeil, B. R., Maatooq, G. T., and Amer, M. M. Immunomodulatory triterpenoids from the oleogum resin of Boswellia carterii Birdwood. Z Naturforsch [C] 2003;58(7-8):505-516. 12939036
- Kesava, Reddy G. and Dhar, S. C. Effect of a new non-steroidal anti-inflammatory lysosomal stability in adjuvant induced arthritis. Ital J Biochem 1987;36(4):205-217. 3429205
- Singh GB, Singh S, and Bani S. Alcoholic extract of salai-guggal ex-Boswellia serrata, a new natural source NSAID. Drugs Today 1996;32(2):109-112
CAD $14.50 – CAD $95.50
Frankincense/Olibanum oil is distilled from incense tears, the hard little droplets from the small African trees. When steam distilled, the oil produced is “strongly diffusive, freshterpeney, almost green-lemon-like or reminiscent of green unripe apple peel.” The low notes tend to be sweet, woody and slightly balsamic.
Frankincense and Cancer
Today, frankincense is being studied for use in fighting cancer. Specifically, it is boswellic acid that has the cancer fighting potential. Boswellic acid is derived from Frankincense resin, but is NOT found in frankincense essential oil.
A certain MLM company has been claiming the presence of boswellic acid in their frankincense essential oil. However, this is a scientific impossibility! Due to the high molecular weight and non-volatility of boswellic acid, it will NOT dissolve in frankincense oil. If you are looking for a natural, cancer fighting substance, try garlic or turmeric or find boswellic acid which is sold in a paste, powder, or in capsule form.
We carry 3 varieties of frankincense essential oil:
- Origin: Somalia
- Chemotype: Alpha-pinene 2-67% with high levels of para-cymene (5-20%) and sabinene (2-16%) (both para cymene and sabinene are found in Tea Tree Oil)
- Yield: 2%
- Odour quality: high
- Anti-microbial, anti-fungal, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antibacterial
- Best variety for wound care and skin issues
- A better rounded oil for wound and skin care than the cheaper Boswellia serrata, but if you can’t afford the price, go with Boswellia serrata.
- Origin: Oman
- Chemotype: Alpha-pinene: up to 80% (also found in cannabis)
- Yield: 9-10%
- Odour quality: high
- Anti-inflammatory, bronchial problems, increase alertness and memory retention, counters anxiety, antibacterial, antioxidant
- Great for skin and anti-aging
- Origin: India
- Chemotype: Alpha-thujene
- Yield: 10% or more (most economical option)
- Odour quality: low
- Anti-inflammatory, arthritis, insecticide, antimicrobial
- Good for skin, scalp and nail infections
Ways to use:
- Massage oil: 2.5-5% dilution 15-20 drops/ 30mL of carrier oil such as fractionated coconut, sunflower, etc.
- Diffuser: 5-6 drops in water, though best diluted in tsp of vodka or isopropyl alcohol first as this is a gum and can plug diffusers.
- Baths: add 2-12 drops into tsp of honey, milk or carrier oil and/or add to epsom or Dead Sea salt then into bath water.
- Lotion or Shampoo: add 15-20 drops /30 mLs of unscented base
Blends well with: Sandalwood, Pine, Lavender, Blood Orange, Mandarin, Bergamot, Camphor, Cinnamon
Frequently Asked Questions
A: Boswellia frereana may have a smaller yield, but this species is commonly found in Somalia, therefore there is no shortage of this type of frankincense. Although it has a higher yield, the Boswellia sacra is less commonly found, making this oil more rare.
|Dimensions||2.8 × 2.8 × 6.7 cm|