MOSQUITO Repellant Essential Oils: Catnip, Sage, Clary Sage, Plai, Turmeric, Peppermint, Lemongrass, Juniper Berry, Lemon Eucalyptus, Neem
The studies below indicate the use of a carrier of some kind and limited effectiveness of 30 minutes to 4 hours depending on the oil and combination of oils as well as dose dependant (strength of application). Keep this in mind if formulating your own sprays and lotions. Read full studies to determine best formulation.
- Evaluation of the repellent effects of Nepeta parnassica extract,(catnip) essential oil, and its major nepetalactone metabolite against mosquitoes Gkinis, G. · Michaelakis, A., et al. in Parasitology Research (2014)
- The results showed significant differences in repellency among the repellents by mosquito species. The protection time of the essential oils against Ae. aegypti ranged from 3 to 30 min. According to the Culex mosquito, it showed the protection time ranged from 3 to 260 min. 10 % Boesenbergia rotunda essential oil provided the best efficiency, in which protection time was 4.3 h as equal as DEET. The essential oils which exhibited protection time more than 2 h were those of 10 % Zingiber zerumbet, Litsea petiolata, Curcuma zedoaria, and Zingiber cassumunar essential oils (3.1, 2.8, 2.6, and 2.3 h, respectively).
- Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association: Indoor Protection Against Mosquito and Sand Fly Bites: A Comparison Between Citronella, Linalool, and Geraniol Candles. Günter C. Müller, Amy Junnila, Vasiliy D. Kravchenko, Edita E. Revay, Jerry Butler, and Yosef Schlein
- ABSTRACT The repellent effect of 3 essential-oil-based candles was evaluated in a high biting pressure environment in Israel. In human landing assays, the repellency rate of 5% citronella candles against mosquitoes was 29.0%, of 5% linalool candles was 71.1%, and of 5% geraniol candles was 85.4%. The candles with geraniol were about twice as effective as those with linalool and were about 5 times as effective as citronella candles in protecting a person from being bitten indoors by mosquitoes. The repellency rate of 5% citronella candles towards sand flies was 24.7%, of 5% linalool candles was 55.2%, and of 5% geraniol candles was 79.7%. A geraniol candle was almost 5 times as effective as a citronella candle and about twice as effective as a linalool candle in protecting a person from being bitten indoors by sand flies.
- Improving the effectiveness of three essential oils against Aedes aegypti (Linn.) and Anopheles dirus (Peyton and Harrison) Auysawasdi, N., et al. in Parasitology Research (2015)
- The 25 % Curcuma longa essential oil exhibited the best efficiency as equal as a commercial repellent (480 min against An. dirus). Vanillin can extend the period of time in protection against the two mosquitoes. This study indicates the potential uses of the essential oils (Curcuma longa, Eucalyptus globulus, and Citrus aurantium) with vanillin as natural mosquito repellents.
- Repellent effect of Salvia dorisiana, (sage) S. longifolia, and S. sclarea (clary sage) (Lamiaceae) essential oils against the mosquito Aedes albopictus Skuse (Diptera: Culicidae) Conti, B. · Benelli, G., et al. in Parasitology Research (2012)
- Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) has been one of the fastest spreading insects over the past 20 years. Its medical importance is due to the aggressive daytime human-biting behavior and the ability to vector many viruses, including dengue, LaCrosse, Eastern Equine encephalitis and West Nile viruses. In this research, the essential oils (EOs) extracted from fresh air dried leaves of Salvia dorisiana, S. longifolia, and S. sclarea (Lamiaceae) were evaluated for their repellent activity against A. albopictus by using the human-bait technique…. Results indicated that S. dorisiana, S. longifolia, and S. sclarea EOs had a significant repellent activity… S. dorisiana was the most effective oil: at the two higher dosages, it gave almost complete protection (with a protective efficacy of 90.99% and 95.62%, respectively) for 90 min. The best protection time was achieved with S. dorisiana essential oil….Our findings clearly reveal that these EOs have a good repellent activity against A. albopictus, therefore they can be proposed to improve the efficacy of repellent formulations against the Asian tiger mosquito.
- Mosquito repellent activity of essential oils of aromatic plants growing in Argentina YG Gillij, RM Gleiser, JA Zygadlo – Bioresource technology, 2008 – Elsevier… high camphor and high limonene were the main components responsible for repellancy.
- Larvicidal and mosquito repellent action of peppermint (Mentha piperita) oil. MA Ansari, P Vasudevan, M Tandon… – Bioresource Technology, 2000 – Elsevier
- Formulation of an effective mosquito-repellent topical product from lemongrass oil AO Oyedele, AA Gbolade, MB Sosan, FB Adewoyin… – Phytomedicine, 2002 – Elsevier
- The potential of botanical essential oils for insect pest control C REGNAULT-ROGER – Integrated Pest Management Reviews, 1997 – Springer.. the berries of Jupinerus communis (Cupressaceae) is a very good mosquito repellent
- Repellency to Stomoxys calcitrans (Diptera: Muscidae) of Plant Essential Oils Alone or in Combination With Calophyllum inophyllum Nut Oil (CC) Tran Trung Hieu , Soon-Il Kim , Sang-Guei Lee , Young-Joon Ahn DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jmedent/47.4.575 575-580 First published online: 1 July 2010
- ABSTRACT: The repellency to female Stomoxys calcitrans (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae) of 21 essential oils (EOs) alone or in combination with Calophyllum inophyllum L. (Clusiaceae) nut oil (tamanu oil) was examined using an exposed human hand bioassay. Results were compared with those of commonly used repellent N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET). In tests with six human male volunteers at a dose of 0.5 mg/cm2, patchouli (protection time [PT], 3.67 h) was the most effective EO but less active than DEET (4.47 h), as judged by the PT to first bite. Very strong repellency also was produced by clove bud, lovage root, and clove leaf EOs (PT, 3.50–3.25 h), whereas strong repellency was obtained from thyme white EO (2.12 h). Thyme red, oregano, and geranium EOs exhibited moderate repellency (PT, 1.24–1.11 h). At 0.25 mg/cm2, protection time of clove bud, clove leaf, and lovage root EOs (PT, ≈1 h) was shorter than that of DEET (2.17 h). An increase in the protection time was produced by binary mixtures (PT, 2.68–2.04 h) of five EOs (clove bud, clove leaf, thyme white, patchouli, and savory) and tamanu oil (0.25:2.0 mg/cm2) compared with that of either the constituted essential oil or tamanu oil alone (PT, 0.56 h). The protection time of these binary mixtures was comparable with that of DEET. With the exception of savory EO, the other EOs, tamanu oil, and binary mixtures did not induce any adverse effects on the human volunteers at 0.5 mg/cm2. Thus, binary mixtures of essential oils and tamanu oil described merit further study as potential repellents for protection from humans and domestic animals from biting and nuisance caused by S. calcitrans.
- Comparative repellency of 38 essential oils against mosquito bites. Y Trongtokit, Y Rongsriyam… – Phytotherapy …, 2005 – Wiley Online Library
- … When the tested oils were applied at a 10% or 50% concentration, none of them prevented mosquito bites for as long as 2 h, but the undiluted oils of Cymbopogon nardus (citronella), Pogostemon cablin (patchuli), Syzygium aromaticum (clove) and Zanthoxylum limonella (Thai ..
TICKS & MOSQUITOS
- Repellency of Oils of Lemon Eucalyptus, Geranium, and Lavender and the Mosquito Repellent MyggA Natural to Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae) in the Laboratory and Field Thomas G. T. Jaenson, Samira Garboui, Katinka PålssonDOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jmedent/43.4.731 731-736
- MyggA Natural (Bioglan, Lund, Sweden) is a commercially available repellent against blood-feeding arthropods. It contains 30% of lemon-scented eucalyptus, Corymbia citriodora (Hook.) K. D. Hill & L. A. S. Johnson (Myrtaceae), oil with a minimum of 50% p-menthane-3,8-diol. MyggA Natural also contains small amounts of the essential oils of lavender, Lavandula angustifolia Mill. (Lamiaceae), and geranium, Pelargonium graveolens L’Her. (Geraniaceae). In laboratory bioassays, MyggA Natural and C. citriodora oil exhibited 100% repellency against host-seeking nymphs of Ixodes ricinus (L.) (Acari: Ixodidae). Lavender oil and geranium oil, when diluted to 1% in 1,2-propanediol, had weak repellent activities on I. ricinus nymphs, but when diluted to 30% in 1,2-propanediol had 100% repellencies. 1,2-Propanediol (100%) had no significant repellent activity in comparison with that of the control. In field tests in tick-infested areas in central Sweden, tick repellency of MyggA Natural and C. citriodora oil was tested by the blanket-dragging technique for 4 d during a 6-d period. The repellencies (74 and 85%, respectively) on day 1 are similar (89%) to that of blankets treated in a similar manner with 19% diethyl-methyl-benzamide, based on previous work. Repellencies declined significantly from day 1 to day 6 (74 to 45% for MyggA Natural; 85 to 42% for C. citriodora oil)
- Toxicity of plant essential oils to Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae) and Phytoseiulus persimilis (Acari: Phytoseiidae) WI Choi, SG Lee, HM Park… – Journal of Economic …, 2004 – jee.oxfordjournals.org
- …caraway seed, citronella java, lemon eucalyptus, pennyroyal, and peppermint oils gave 90% mortality against adult T. urticae, whereas 82 and 81% mortality was observed with sage and spearmint oils, respectively…